Top 50 Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers

Here, you will find the frequently asked interview questions so that one can get the right idea about software testing. The questions are collected after consulting industry professionals who have the correct information about software testing. 
software testing interview questions

Software testing is defined as an activity that is generally performed in the software development life-cycle. This is required for the verification of software to check the accuracy and works as per the needs. Hence, it is quite understandable that testing has a great role to play in software development projects. The prime objective of software testing is preparing software with confidence under testing procedures. 

One important thing that needs to focus on is that performing so much performance testing does not verify the high performance of software and its quality. Testing is a way to indicate the quality, fix various problems and offer feedback to developers who are creating software. 

Here, you will find the frequently asked interview questions so that one can get the right idea about software testing. The questions are collected after consulting industry professionals who have the correct information about software testing. 

  1. What are the different phases included in Software Testing Life Cycle?

Well, there are various phases present in the software testing life cycle named as – 

  • Test case development – In this stage, test cases are described and developed in detail.
  • Test planning – Here the test strategies are properly defined.
  • Test execution – The process includes the execution of code and compares actual results with the expected ones. 
  • Environment setup – It involves a setup of hardware and software used for testing as well as executing different test cases. 
  • Test cycle closure – The process involves the meeting of testing team members and further evaluates cycle completion criteria. The criteria are defined on the basis of quality, test coverage, critical business objectives, cost time, and software. 
  1. What are the methods of software testing?

Generally, there are three approaches to software testing and they are mentioned – 

  • White box testing – This approach depends on internal paths, implementation of software, and code structures of different software that need to be tested. To perform this requires comprehensive programming skills.
  • Black box testing – The testing strategy is all about needs and specifications. There is no requirement for knowledge of internal paths, implementation, and structures of software that has to be tested. 
  • Gray box testing – The strategy includes debugging software when the tester has restricted knowledge of internal information about the program. 
  1. Do you know about levels of testing?

Software testing includes four levels – 

  • Integration testing
  • Unit testing
  • Acceptance testing
  • System testing

The process starts with Unit testing and ends with Acceptance testing.

  1. How do you explain the bug cycle or you can say the defect life cycle?

A defect cycle is defined as a procedure where the defect has to pass through different phases throughout its lifetime. The process starts with finding a defect and ends when it gets closed after the assurance that it’s not going to reproduce further. The whole thing varies from company to company depending on different factors like organization policy, software development model, and others. 

  1. What do you understand by software testing?

Software testing is about evaluating and verifying the software product’s functionality. It is used for matching the software with the predicted requirements and ensuring that the software is free from any defect. In short, a series of testing improves the quality of software by evading bugs and minimizing development costs and also performance issues. 

  1. What do you mean by test case?

A test case is a set of conditions that the tester will use for determining the system under certain test requirements. 

  1. How can you explain regression testing?

As per the dictionary definition, regression works as an act of visiting back to a previous place or state. In software terms, regression is used as a feature required to work whenever a developer a new code or functionality to the software. The problems associated with regression are quite persistent in this industry and all the time new features are added with time. In spite of building new features, the new code is meant to interact with legacy code. With the introduction of new changes, there is a possibility of a negative impact on software working. 

Regression testing is ideal for ensuring that new code doesn’t harm the present behavior of existing codes. 

  1. What is the difference between non-functional and functional testing?

Functional testing is usually performed before non-functional testing and done as per the customers’ requirements. It is known for describing the functionality of different products. On the other hand, non-functional testing is meant to perform just after functional testing. It is also performed depending on the customers’ expectations and describes the working of products.

  1. Explain something about verification and validation in software testing

In other term, verification is known to be a static analysis technique that is done without the use of code. It includes inspections, reviews, and walkthroughs. While the validation is given another term, i.e. dynamic analysis technique where it is done by execution of the codes. 

  1. Describe usability testing

Actually, it works as a testing methodology that allows the customers to use the software and check whether the product is easy to use or not. The precise way of finalizing the customer view is by checking the usability on the basis of mock-up software at the time of initial stages. 

  1. What do you mean by unit testing?

Well, unit testing is a method to test a single unit of code in an isolated manner. Generally, it works by aiming for the smallest building blocks of code. This helps in getting the confidence to develop fully working software. In case, both expected and actual outcomes match together this means the unit test passes. 

A good unit comprises of following characteristics.

  • It should be able to test a single piece of functionality.
  • Able to run fast and offer quick feedback.
  • It must be fully automated and repeatable. 
  • The unit testing should be isolated and shouldn’t interact with external factors like databases, networks, or file systems. The mocking technique can be used for the simulation of external dependencies. 
  1. Tell us about different categories of defects

Commonly, there are three prime categories of defects. 

  • Missing – It is a kind of variance from specification and acts as an indication that specification is not implemented. 
  • Wrong – It shows that requirements have not been applied correctly. 
  • Extra – This category is a kind of requirement that is incorporated into a product that is actually not provided by the end customer. 
  1. Can you tell me how does actually a test coverage tool work?

At the time when software is going for testing, the code functions to measure how much the program’s source code is usually covered by the test plan. The experts run the code average testing equivalent t actual product testing. 

  1. What factors you can use for preparing an acceptance plan?

There are certain inputs on which the acceptance document is designed.

  • Requirement document – It indicates the requirements of a project according to the customers’ perspective. 
  • Using input from customers – This could be related to discussions, emails, informal talks, and others.
  • Project plan – A project manager is responsible for preparing the plans and finalizing the acceptance test. 
  1. What is a test plan and what does it include?

A test plan is defined to be a dynamic document, which is monitored and controlled by the testing manager. Behind the success of a testing project, a good test plan document plays a major role as it describes the activities and scope very well. Actually, it works as a blueprint that outlines how, when, what, and other details about the complete test process. 

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  1. Enlighten about coverage and various types of coverage techniques.

Coverage is a set of a parameter used in software testing for defining the extent to which the source code is tested. Coverage techniques are categorized into three types.  

  • Decision coverage – Give the assurance that every decision is properly executed and tested. 
  • Statement coverage – Ensure that every line of source code is executed and tested. 
  • Path coverage – Confirm that every possible route of code is properly executed and tested. 
  1. What are the advantages of automation testing?

Automation testing has specific benefits and they are mentioned – 

  • Supporting the implementation of repeated test cases. 
  • Helps in testing a large amount of test matrix. 
  • Allows parallel execution. 
  • Boost unattended execution.
  • Improve the precision and thus, minimize human-generated errors. 
  • Saves both money and time. 
  1. Why do experts prefer using selenium for Automation testing?

Selenium is known to be an open-source tool meant for the automation of tests carried out in different web browsers. There is no need for licensing cost as Selenium is present as an open source and offer major advantages. The prime reasons behind the popularity of Selenium are – 

  • Test scripts are mostly written with the help of programming languages like Python, Java, PHP, Ruby, C#, Perl & Net.
  • Tests are carried out in Windows, Mac, or Linux.
  • Tests can be performed with web browsers like Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, Opera, or Google Chrome. 
  • It can easily be instilled with tools including TestNG and JUnit for managing different cases. 
  1. Can you tell us about the various components of Selenium?

Some of the different components of Selenium are mentioned as – 

  • Selenium Remote Control (RC).
  • Selenium WebDriver.
  • Selenium Integrated Development Environment (IDE).
  • Selenium Grid.
  1. How will you define A/B Testing?

A/B Testing is available as a procedure in which two or more versions of the software are performed. That’s why; it is considered to be a low-risk method of testing variations of existing as well as new functionality. 

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  1. Do you know about the various kinds of locations present in Selenium?

A locator is just present as an address meant for identifying a web element within a webpage. Therefore, for the identification purpose in a precise manner, there are different kinds of locations in Selenium like – 

  • Class Name
  • ID
  • Name
  • LinkText
  • TagName
  • PartialLinkText
  • CSS Selector
  • DOM
  • Xpath
  1. Define something about XPath

Also known as XML Path, XPath is a kind of language used to query XML documents. Undoubtedly, it is present as an essential strategy meant for locating different elements in Selenium. It comprises a path expression looking into some of the conditions. Now, locating any element can easily be done with an XPath script or query.

  1. How you can differentiate between Relative and Absolute Paths?

Talking about the Relative XPath, the path actually starts from the middle of the HTML DOM structure. This means it starts with a double forward slash that depicts it is able to search the element anywhere from the webpage. 

On the other hand, Absolute XPath is a direct method to search the element. But, the only disadvantage of this is that XPath gets failed if there will be any change made in the path of an element. 

  1. What is SPICE described in software testing? 

SPICE is a short form for Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination. In the software field, it is used as a standard framework meant for evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of different development processes. 

  1. What is meant by latent defect and masked defect?

Latent defects do exist but don’t have been invoked till now. This is so because; they haven’t met the conditions needed to invoke them. The Masked effects are not yet resulted in a failure. It is discoverable only when defects that are hiding get exposed by users. 

  1. What are the exceptions associated with Selenium WebDriver?

Selenium exceptions are quite similar to other languages’ exceptions. Some of the most common exceptions are – 

  • Element Not Visible Exception
  • Timeout Exception
  • No Such Element Exception
  • State Element Exception
  1. When should a Selenium Grid be used?

Selenium grid is a useful thing meant for the execution purpose of different or the same test scripts on multiple platforms as well as browsers. 

  1. Enlighten about categories of debugging

There are various categories of debugging including – 

  • Backtracking
  • Brute Force Debugging
  • Cause elimination
  • Fault tree analysis
  • Program slicing
  1. How can you launch the browser with the help of WebDriver?

 Some of the syntaxes are used for launching of browser – 

  • WebDriver driver – new FirefoxDriver
  • WebDriver driver – new ChromeDriver
  • WebDriver driver – new InternetExplorer
  1. Which steps you can follow to resolve the issues that occur while testing?

By following some of the steps it is possible to resolve the issues. 

  • Record – This step is required for tracking the presence of problems and resolving them.
  • Report – In this, the higher-level managers are informed about the issues. 
  • Control – Establishing a process needed for managing the issues.

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  1. Is it necessary to perform tests only after the completion of the building and execution phases?

Testing is generally done after the building and execution phases. Previously, identifying the defects are considered to be a costly process. Fixing a defect during maintenance is considered to be more costly than fixing it at the time of execution. 

  1. How can you define the relation associated between environment reality and test phases?

Environment reality starts becoming important as the test phase moves ahead. The environment must be real while doing the unit testing. But, during the acceptance phase, you must have a 100% real environment. 

  1. How much testing is needed? Is it possible to perform exhaustive testing of software?

Yes, it is definitely possible to exhaustively test software or prove the absence of errors. It is not necessary that extensive tests don’t find all errors that might get missed. If you don’t find any kind of error that doesn’t mean the software is perfect. This simply indicates that the tests are not done properly. If you want to know that the program is working that means you have to test all the inputs and combinations. 

  1. How does it affects when the defects get removed during a later stage rather than the initial stage?

In case the defects are identified in the initial stage, then they should be removed quickly there in spite of removing them from a later stage. If it is removed at a later stage, the cost will be high. 

  1. What do you understand by confirmation and regression testing?

Confirmation testing – Whenever a test fails because of any presence of a defect, it is generally reported. A new version is proficient in submitting the defects that are fixed. It is called confirmation testing.

Regression testing – It is a kind of software testing used for confirming different code changes that don’t affect the present features. 

  1. How you will explain boundary value analysis?

Also known as the black box test design method, it is used to find the presence of bugs at the boundary of the input domain. 

  1. Tell something about random testing

Talking about random testing, the data is generated randomly with the help of a tool or automated mechanism. After this, the system is tested accordingly and results are observed likewise. 

  1. How can you decide the estimation of a project?

For the estimation process, there are certain points need to be considered. 

  • Firstly, divide the complete project into different and small tasks. 
  • Allocate each task to different team members.
  • Now, try to estimate the effort needed to complete every task.
  • Next is to validate the estimation.
  1. State some of the basic components of the defect report format

The defect report format includes the following components.

  • Module name
  • Defect detected by
  • Snapshot of the defect
  • Project name
  • Defect detected on
  • Defect ID and name
  • Priority and severity status
  • Defect resolved on
  • Defect resolved by
  1. Which test cases can easily be automated?

Here is a list of some of the test cases that can easily be automated. 

  • Regression test cases
  • Smoke test cases
  • Complex calculation test cases
  • Non-functional test cases
  • Data-driven test cases
  1. How you can succeed in the map of Automation testing?

The success of automation testing is based on the following criteria.

  • Automation execution time and time savings meant for releasing the product.
  • Defect detection ratio.
  • Decrease in labor and other costs.
  1. What do you know about load testing on websites?

To get access to a website, users have to send a request to the website server and it sends it back a response to allow access. For load tests, a website, the quality assurance and automation engineers multiply the responses that are generally sent to increase the traffic loads. 

  1. How you can use link text to click on a hyperlink?

It is a command useful for finding the element via link text and then clicking on that element. Therefore, the users would automatically be redirected to the corresponding page. 

  1. How will you describe Object Repository and how you can create it in Selenium?

An object Repository is defined as a collection of web elements that belong to Application Under Test (AUT) together with locator value. When it comes to Selenium, objects are usually stored in an excel sheet that can easily be populated inside the script. 

  1. What kinds of inputs are required from end users to start proper testing?

End users are meant to be a priority as they are the ones who use the products offered by a company. Thus, they show a keen interest in any project. Therefore, some of the inputs are a requirement, risks, live data, and different scenarios for testing. 

  1. Explain something about the workbench concept.

A workbench exists as a way to document how a specific activity is performed. It is usually referred to as phases, tasks, and steps. There are specific tasks performed by the workbench. 

  • Execute
  • Input
  • Check
  • Production output
  • Rework
  1. How will you define defect cascading?

Defect cascading is a kind of defect that is generally occurred because of other defects. It’s evident that one defect can easily trigger other defects. And, if the presence of any defect is not identified, it will result in an upsurge in the number of defects. 

  1. Mention various strategies used for rollout to end users

Some of the important strategies are mentioned as – 

  • Gradual implementation
  • Pilot
  • Phased implementation
  • Parallel implementation
  1. Is it possible for you to find broken links present on a page with the help of Selenium WebDriver?

It is definitely a tricky question that can confuse my candidates. If you are in such a scenario and want to verify the working of each link, then you have to send HTTP requests to all links present on a web page and further analyze the response. Whenever you make use of the driver method for the purpose of navigating a URL, it will automatically get the response with a status. This clearly means that the link is properly working. 

  1. How can you take screenshots in Selenium WebDriver?

You can use the TakeCreenshot function for taking a screenshot. If you want to save the screenshot, then use the get screenshots() method. 

These Software Testing Interview Questions are relevant for everyone who is seeking a career in the Software industry. So, these questions are really helpful for you and give you an excellent idea about what questions you can get in an interview. For more Job Oriented Courses check out ProIT Academy.

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