Python Interview Questions and Answers

The most common programming domain skill in Python certification. In 2021, the Python interview questions were presented to you. Python Programming basics are more than 100 questions that will help you benefit as much as possible from your blog with varied expertise.
Python Interview Questions and Answers

The most common programming domain skill in Python certification. In 2021, the Python interview questions were presented to you. Python Programming basics are more than 100 questions that will help you benefit as much as possible from your blog with varied expertise.

Do you want to get up to work for yourself? See the technology of the top trends. Let’s start by looking at some of the Python interview questions and answers most frequently asked.

What is Python?

Python, in general, programming is an encoded, high-grade language. It is a known language. Almost every kind of application can build with the correct tools/libraries. Besides that, Python supports objects, modules, threads, exceptional handling, and automated memory management, helping to model real-world issues and build applications.

What are the advantages of Python?

Python is a standard programming language with an easy-to-learn syntax that prioritizes readability and reduces maintenance costs. The language can also be written in, is entirely open-source, and supports third-party packages that promote modularity and code reuse.

Many developers are drawn to the rapid application due to its high data structures, dynamic typing, and dynamic binding.

What is a dynamically typed language concept?

Before we can comprehend what a dynamically spoken language is, we must first learn what typing is. The term ‘typing’ refers to programming language type-checking. In a strong language such as Python, “1” + 2 would lead to a type error because “type-coercion” is not allowed in those languages. In a weak language like Javascript, however, the result would be “12” output.

Type checks can perform on two levels. 

Static – Before execution, the data types are checked.

Dynamic: During the performance, the data types are tested.

Python is an interpreted language; every statement is executed line by line, requiring a type check on the fly. Python is, therefore, a language of the dynamic kind.

What does the interpreted language mean?

The statements are performed line by line in an interpreted language. Languages like Python, Javascript, R, PHP, and Ruby are perfect examples. Programs are written in interpreted language run from source code directly, without an intermediate compilation step.

What exactly is PEP 8, and why is it significant?

The Python Enhancement Proposal is an acronym for Python Enhancement Proposal. PEP stands for Python Enhancement Protocol and is an official design paper that advises the Python community or explains a new Python function or method. PEP 8 is particularly important because it documents Python Code style guidelines. You have to obey specific style guidelines seriously and strictly in the open-source community of Python.

In Python, how is memory managed?

The Memory Manager for Python handles the memory in Python. The memory the manager delegates are in Python’s form a private heap space. All objects from Python are stored in this heap and are confidential, and the programmer cannot access them. However, Python offers some core API features to operate in private heap space.

Also, Python has an in-built waste collection integrated into which the unused space for private heap space can recycle.

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What are the namespaces in Python? Why is it that they are used?

A Python namespace ensures that the name of the objects in a program is identical and can be used without dispute. Python uses these namespaces as dictionaries with the corresponding object as a value mapped name as the key. It enabled the same name to be applied in several namespaces and applied to a different object. 

The local namespace contains a local feature name. When the function returns, the namespace of a function call is temporarily specified and cleared. The global namespace includes names from the different packages/modules imported for the current project. The package would be generated if imported into the script and lasts until the script is executed.

The built-in namespace contains built-in Python core functions and integrated names for a range of exceptions.

A namespace lifecycle depends on the context of the objects it maps. When the scope of an object stops, this namespace ends its lifecycle. Therefore, internal namespace objects cannot access from an external namespace.

What is Scope in Python?

In Python, each object operates inside a scope. A scale is a code block that remains applicable to an object in Python. All objects within a program are unique in namespaces. However, they also provide an area where you can use the object with no prefix. These namespaces can use. The following are some examples of the scope created in Python during code execution:

A local scope applies to the local objects currently accessible.

The objects since the start of code are known as a global scope.

The scope of a module-level corresponds to the global objects in the current program context.

An outer scope applies to all the names in the program that can find. The items in this range are last searched for the referenced name.

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What is Scope Resolution in Python?

Objects in the same scope have similar names, although they are distinct. In such situations, Python will automatically show scope resolution. Some examples of these behaviors are:

There are several functions common to the ‘math’ and the ‘cmath’ python modules – log10(), acos(), exp() etc. To fix this ambiguity, you must prefix it with its Module like math.exp() and cmath.exp ().

Consider the following code, an object temp is initialized globally to 10 and then to 20 when calling the function. The call feature, however, did not alter the temp value worldwide. Here, we can see that Python sets a separate line between global and local parameters that regard their names as individual identities.

What are decorators in Python?

The decorators in Python simply apply functions to existing functions without changing their structure. The @decorator name in Python represents them, and they are named bottom-up.

What are tuples and lists? How are the two different from each other?

Lists and Tuples are two types of sequence data that can store an object set in Python. In both sequences, objects stored may have different data types. The square brackets [‘Sara, 6, 0.19] are represented on the lists, while parentheses tuples are represented (‘ansh, 5 and 0.97).

 The key distinction is that although the lists are mutable, on the other side, tuples are immutable objects. That means lists can be altered, added, or sliced, but tuples remain constant and cannot be changed in any way. 

What are Dict and List comprehensions?

The syntactic sugar constructs that help you create altered and filtered lists or dictionaries or sets from a given list, dictionary, or set are python comprehensions like decorators. By using understandings, you save a lot of time and code that could be even more verbose.

What are the most popular built-in data types in Python?

In Python, there are several integrated data forms. While Python needs that no data type is specified explicitly during variable declarations, there will likely be type errors if the awareness and compatibility of data types are ignored. To verify the form of these variables, Python provides the type () and isinstance() functions. The following forms of data may be categorized.

None Type

In Python, null values are none keyword. These NoneType objects can use for boolean equality.

Numeric Types

There are three different numbers, integer, floating, and complex. Booleans are also an integer subtype.

Sequence Types

In the range of Python Docs, three key sequence types are available: lists, tuples, and objects. Sequence types have their elements in and not in operators specified. The operators have the same priority as a comparison.

Mapping Types

An object mapping can map random values in Python. Mapping objects are mutable and only one standard form, the dictionary, is presently available.

Set Types

Currently, Python has a set and a frozenset of two integrated sets. Methods such as add() and remove support mutable set type (). The form of frozenset is immutable and cannot be changed after creation.


The Python interpreter provides the Module for a different built-in form. It supported one special operation, access to the attributes: mymod.myobj, in which mymod is a module and myobj is a name specified in a table of m’s symbols. The symbol table of the Module resides in a very particular __dict___ module attribute, but it is not possible or recommended that this Module be directly assigned.

Callable Types

Callable types are the kinds that can use in a function call. You can use functions, methods, courses, generator functions, and other built-in functions, techniques, and classes.

What is Python’s lambda? Why are we using it?

The Python lambda is an anonymous function that takes many arguments but can have only one expression. It is usually used for short periods in circumstances that demand an anonymous function. 

What is pass in Python?

In Python, the pass keyword represents a zero operation. It is commonly utilized to fill empty code blocks that can run but have not yet been written. 

How do you copy a Python object?

The assignment statement (= operator) in Python does not copy objects. Instead, the object is binding with the target variable name. Instead, we need a copy module to make copies of an object in Python. Also, the copying module provides two ways to create copies for the object – –

A shallow copy is an object’s bit-way copy. The developed copied object has an accurate copy in the original object of the values. If the references to other objects are one of the values, only the reference addresses are copied in the same way.

Deep Copy recursively copies all the values from source to target, and it also duplicates objects referring to the source object.

How can Python separate xrange from the range? 

The functionality of xrange() and range() is very similar. Both create a series of entries, with the only difference that range() returns a list of Python while xrange() returns an object xrange.

Then, how does that change? It sure does, since xrange() does not create a static list, as opposed to range(), it will create the value on the go. Usually used with the generator of an object form, the technique is called “yielding.”

In applications where the storage is limited, yield is essential. A static list such as range() could lead to a memory error, whereas xrange() can be optimized with appropriate generator memory.

Explain Python modules and packages?

Python packages and Python modules improve the modular systems in Python are two mechanisms. Modularization with many benefits –

Simplicity: Working on a single module will help you concentrate on a small part of the issue. It facilitates and reduces the chances of development.

Maintenance: Modules are designed to implement conceptual boundaries between various problem domains. In a way that eliminates interdependency, changes in a module are less likely to affect other program parts.

Reusability: The module-defined functions can easily reuse in other application areas.

Scope: Modules usually specify a different namespace to prevent confusion of ID of other sections of the program.

Generally, the modules are .py files with an extension and can be defined and implemented with a collection of functions, classes, or variables. Import and initialization of the import declaration. Import of required classes or functions from the foo import bar if partial functions are needed.

Packages allow the structure of the namespace module hierarchically using the notation point. As modules help avoid confrontations between global variable names, packages likewise help prevent conflicts between module names.

It is simple to create a package because it uses the inherent file structure of the framework. So only add the modules to the folder and the folder as the package name is there. The package name as a prefix for the Module’s name attached with a dot includes the import from this package of Module or its content.

What do the terms “global,” “protected,” and “private” mean in Python?

Global variables are publicly specified variables within the global scope. Protected attributes are attributes that are prefixed to an underscore for an identifier like _sara. You may still access them and modify them from outside of the class, but a responsible developer must refrain from doing so.

Private attributes are attributes that are prefixed with a double underscore, for example—__ansh. You can’t view or modify directly from outside, and if you attempt that, it results in an AttributeError.

Explain self in Python?

Self is a Python-defined class keyword-instance or object. In Python, the explanation is used as its first parameter, as is optional in Java. It helps to distinguish class methods and features from local variables.

What is __init__?

__init__ is in Python a constructor method called automatically when a new object/instance is created to assign the memory. Any class has an associated __init__ method. It helps differentiate the class from local variables, techniques, and attributes.

What are pickling and unpickling?

A function of the Python library is the box serialization. The serialization of an object is to convert it into a format that can save for deserializing the object later to acquire the original object. The pickle module is played here.


Pickling is the name of Python’s serialization method. Any object in Python is dumped in memory as a memory byte stream. The byte stream is compact, but bevel objects can further compress. Also, pickle monitors the serialized objects and portability over the various versions of the serialization.


Unpickling is the opposite of pickling. The byte stream is reserialized to restore the stored object in the file and loads it to the memory. 

What are generators in Python?

Generators are functions that return a certain number of objects, one by one. Generators are generally used to build various iterators. Instead of returning a generator object, they use the yield keyword.

What are the functions help() and dir() for?

To see the modules, classes, features, keywords, and so on, use the Python help() function. If the support() function is called without a parameter, a console-based interactive help function is launched. The dir() function attempts to return a correct list of object attributes and methods it is called. It is distinct from other objects since it aims at producing essential information rather than complete data.

It returns a list of attributes in that Module for Modules/Library properties.

For Class Objects, this method contains a list of all valid and primary attributes.

It does not take arguments and returns in the current scope a set of attributes.

What’s the distinction and .pyc files?

.py files provide the program’s source code. Alternatively, the .pyc file includes the program’s bytecode. After building the .py file, we get bytecode. Not all of the files you execute are generated with .pyc. It is built exclusively for the files you import.

The python interpreter tests the compiled files before running a python program. The virtual machine executes the file if it is present. It scans files until they are identified. When it’s found, create it into .pyc and then run it in the Python virtual machine.

You can save the compilation time by having a .pyc file.

How is Python interpreted?

Python is not compiled as a script. The property of the implementation is interpreted or compiled. Python is a commonly interpreted bytecode.

Source code is an file.

A set of virtual machine instructions are used to compile the source code. The Python interpreter is an example of a virtual machine implementation. Its intermediate format is called bytecode. The first compilation is .py. This bytecode can then be interpreted through PyPy, the official compiler of CPython or JIT.

What are unit tests in Python?

Unit testing involves the independent testing of various device components. Could you think it’s necessary to test units? Picture a scenario, and you create software that uses three elements: A, B, and C. Let us assume now that your software breaks at a time. How could you figure out which part of the software was breaking? Maybe it was part A that failed, and component B failed in turn, and the software failed. Many such combinations can make.

It is why each component must properly test to know what part will cause the software failure.

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Explain the docstring in Python?

The document string is a multi-line string that documents a particular section of the code. The docstring should explain what is done by function or method.

How does value or reference in Python pass on arguments?

Value pass: the real object copy will pass. Changing the copy value of the object does not change the original object’s value.

Reference pass: The actual object reference has been passed. The new object value would change the original object value.

What are iterators in Python?

A form of the object is an iterator.

It recalls its state where the __iter__() method initializes an iterator during iteration. It has a function __next__() to return the next item and point to the next item. When the iterable __next__() object ends, the StopIteration exception must return.

It’s also iterable.

Iterators are objects we can iterate with online objects such as lists, strings, respectively.

What’s the difference between Python Lists and Python Arrays?

In Python, arrays can only contain the same data types, and data array types should be uniform. It is a thin package around C’s arrays and uses far less memory than lists.

Python lists that contain elements of various types of data lists may be heterogeneous data types. It has the downside of large memory consumption.

Explain the main attributes of Python?

Python is a programming language for interpretation. It’s why Python does not have to be compiled before it is run, unlike languages such as C and its variants. PHP and Ruby are also interpreted in other languages.

Python is dynamically typed, implying that if you declare them or something like this, you don’t have to specify the types of the variables. You can do x=111 and x=” I’m a string” with no errors.

Python is well suited for object-oriented programming because it requires class definitions as well as composition and heritage. Python has no access indicator (such as public, private C++).

In Python, first-class objects are functions. According to this description, variables may be allocated, returned from other functions, and forwarded to functions. Also, first-class objects are classes.

Writing Python code is fast but is often slower to run than the languages compiled. Fortunately, Python requires C-based extensions to be integrated, allowing bottlenecks to be identified and optimized continuously. It’s a fantastic example of the NumPy package.

Python isn’t very good at a lot of stuff – web apps, automation, scientific simulations, big data apps, and so on. It’s also used as a glue code to ensure that other languages and elements work well together.

What is the Python language? Scripting or Programming?

Python is capable of scripting but is considered a general programming language in the broad sense.

Python is an interpretive programming language. Please explain.

Any programming language that does not run on a machine is known as an interpreted language. Therefore, Python is an interpreted language.

How is memory managed in Python?

Both Python objects and data structures are contained in a private heap. There is no access to this private heap for the programmer. The Python interpreter performs this function.

Python’s memory manager allocates the heap space for Python objects. The core API provides the programmer access to specific programming code.


It’s a module import environment variable. PYTHONPATH is reviewed when a module is imported to see if it exists in other directories. The interpreter uses it to decide which Module should be loaded.

What are the python modules?

Python modules are Python-code directories. Either function classes or variables can be this code. A Python module is an executable code file with

How do local and global variables vary in Python?

●      Global Variables

Variables declared outside of a function are referred to as global variables. These variables are open to any program function.

●      Local Variables:

Any declared variable is known as a local variable within a function. The variable exists in local space and not in global space.

Explain swapcase() function in Python?

It is a string function that transforms all uppercase signs into a lowercase. The current string case can change. This method generates a copy of the string containing all of the Swap’s characters. When the string is in more minor cases, a small case string is produced and vice versa. 

How do you remove whitespaces in a Python string?

Python provides the built-in strip([str) function to remove white spaces and trail spaces from the string. This method returns a string that removed all whitespace. If not, the original string is returned.

How can the leading whitespaces from a string be removed in Python?

We can use the strip() function to remove the lead characters from a string. It is a function called a Python string that takes an optional parameter type char. When a parameter is provided, the character is removed. Otherwise, the string would remove all of the lead spaces.

Why can we use Python’s join() function?

A string method that returns the value of a string is known as join(). The elements of an iterable are related. It offers a versatile way of concatenating the strings together.

What is the use of the Python break statement?

Break Statement breaks the current execution and shifts power to the existing block. If the break is part of a nested loop, it exits the innermost loop; if the block is part of a loop, it exits it.

What is a tuple in Python?

It enables us to store sequence values. It is unchangeable. Therefore, the original data represent no change. The brackets are used to build the tuple instead of the square brackets. No factor can remove, but the tuple. Indexing is used to obtain components. It also helps elements to travel by negative indexing in reverse order. Tuple supports different methods such as max(), sum(), sorted(), respectively.

Which are the file-related libraries/modules in Python?

Python offers libraries/modules on the file system to manage text and binary files. It supports the development, updating, copying, and deletion of files. The libraries are shutil os, and os.path.

The os and os.path modules here provide a filesystem access function while the shutil – Module lets you copy and delete the files.

What are the various Python-supported file processing modes?

There are three options to open files in Python. Write-only, Read-only, read-write, and append mode are available. The file ‘ r’ opens in read-only mode, the file ‘w’ opens in writing-only mode, the file ‘rw’ opens both read-only mode, and the file ‘a’ opens in the add-on mode. The file will open by default in read-only mode if no mode is specified.

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